The history of our museum began in 1930, when the premises of the Oblique Caponier and the area around it were declared a Historical and Revolutionary Reserve and transferred to the Museum of the Revolution as a branch of the museum. An exposition on the history of Kosy Kaponir as a royal prison was created here on the basis of materials about the Elms of Kosy Kaponir and Lukyanivka Prison.
The work of the museum did not last long. Since the 1930s, attempts have been made to destroy or hide information carried by the museum. In 1932, due to the need to vacate the premises, the museum exhibits were moved to a church that was unsuitable for storing exhibits due to humidity. In 1935, the museum was moved to one of the buildings of the Lavra №30. The room was damp, semi-dark. Stock materials deteriorated. Museum staff were affected by the repression.
In October 1940, a resolution of the SNC of the Ukrainian SSR was adopted to unite the Kyiv Regional Museum of the Revolution with the Central Historical Museum and transfer all funds to the Central Historical Museum. "Oblique Caponier", as an independent museum, ceased to exist.
During the Nazi occupation of Kyiv, the oblique caponier exposition was destroyed and the premises occupied by a military unit.
At the request of the people of Kyiv and thanks to the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR of September 28, 1967 №633 "On the restoration of the oblique caponier museum in Kyiv - a branch of the State Historical Museum of the Ukrainian SSR. September 4, 1971 the Historical-Revolutionary and Architectural Museum "Oblique Caponier", a branch of the State Historical Museum with the exposition "Prison, hard labor, exile" was opened.
On October 3, 1975, a new position of senior researcher in fund work was introduced in the museum staff. The first exhibits were transferred to the funds from the funds of museums of Ukraine and Poland.
In 1976 the main directions of the museum's work were research, exposition, mass scientific and educational work, scientific acquisition of funds. The main focus was on collecting materials about the prisoners of the "Oblique Caponier" and establishing contacts with relatives and acquaintances of the revolutionaries. That's how their personal belongings, letters, photos appeared.
In 1977 the stock commission began to work. The main fund at that time numbered 215 items, consisted of prisoners, letters, bookplates, weapons, commemorative medals, author's books with a gift inscription, albums.
Yakiv Isaakovych Berdychivsky, a philanthropist, collector, bibliophile, Pushkinist, and founder of the Alexander Pushkin Museum in Kyiv, had played an important role in the collection of stock collections. He had got the best collection of domestic bookplates in Ukraine. In our museum he was an expert of the procurement commission. Currently, the stock collections of NIAM "Kyiv Fortress" number about 22 thousand storage units.